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Understanding the Ins and Outs of Tax on Rental Property in the UK

Last updated on 24th April, 2024

Renting out a property can be profitable, but it comes with specific responsibilities, including understanding the implications of taxes.

With the ever-changing tax regulations, landlords may find it challenging to navigate the complex world of taxation on rental properties in the UK.

This comprehensive guide aims to simplify things by providing a comprehensive overview of income tax on rental property, tax relief for landlords, and capital gains tax.

The Impact on Income Tax

Renting out a property involves more than just collecting rent; it entails a comprehensive understanding of the financial intricacies.

All income, ranging from rent to non-refundable deposits and additional payments for services, constitutes taxable income.

This includes costs for cleaning communal areas, property repairs, and utility bills. Even money retained from returnable deposits at the end of a tenancy must be declared for tax purposes.

Regarding taxation, rental profits are subject to the same rates as any other income, ranging from 0% to 45%, depending on your tax band.

Landlords must be aware of these implications, especially if they see property rental as a secondary source of income. Combining your rental income with additional earnings could push you into a higher tax bracket.

The tax year for rental income runs from April 6 to April 5 of the following year. Importantly, you must declare rental income for the tax year it’s due, irrespective of when you receive the payments.

On the expenses front, you can deduct allowable expenses related to work done in a particular tax year, regardless of whether the bills are settled before or after the tax year ends.

Navigating Tax Bands and Implications

Understanding the tax bands is crucial for landlords. Depending on your overall income, rental income is taxed at 0%, 20%, 40%, or 45%.

If your rental income pushes you into a higher tax bracket, you’ll pay the applicable percentage on the amount above the threshold. This awareness ensures landlords plan their finances effectively and avoid unexpected tax burdens.

Expenses and Deductions

Deducting allowable expenses can significantly impact your taxable income. From property maintenance costs to letting agent fees, these expenses can be deducted from your rental income, reducing the overall tax liability.

It’s essential to keep meticulous records of costs to ensure accurate deductions and compliance with tax regulations.

Landlord Tax Relief Changes

Before April 2017, landlords could deduct mortgage interest payments from rental income before tax calculation. However, a new buy-to-let tax system phased in from the 2017-18 tax year has changed this scenario.

In 2020, private landlords could no longer deduct mortgage interest payments from their rental income. Instead, the entire sum of interest payment qualifies for a 20% tax relief.

This shift has significant implications, particularly for landlords in higher tax brackets who now pay tax on a percentage of their total rental income rather than the income minus mortgage interest. Understanding these changes is vital for landlords to avoid unexpected tax burdens.

The Impact of the 20% Tax Relief

The transition to a 20% tax relief on mortgage interest payments has financial implications for landlords. Previously, landlords deduct mortgage interest before calculating tax, potentially reducing their tax liability significantly.

With the new system, the entire interest payment qualifies for a 20% tax relief. This change may result in higher taxable incomes for landlords, especially those in higher tax brackets.

Adapting Financial Strategies

In light of these changes, landlords should reassess their financial strategies. This may include reviewing rental prices, exploring new investment opportunities, or consulting financial advisors to optimise tax efficiency.

Staying informed about the evolving landscape of landlord tax relief ensures landlords make informed decisions for their economic well-being.

Capital Gains Tax on Property

Selling a buy-to-let property triggers capital gains tax (CGT) based on the gains, not just the sale amount. A proportion of the income could be taxable whether you’re selling the entire property or just a part of it. Basic-rate taxpayers face an 18% CGT, while higher and additional-rate taxpayers bear a 28% CGT.

As of 2019-20, individuals can make tax-free capital gains of up to £12,000, and couples can combine this allowance for a potential income of £24,000. It’s crucial to note that if you used to reside in your rental property, you might be eligible for letting relief, reducing your capital gains tax liability.

From April 6, 2020, changes in CGT payment deadlines require individuals to settle the tax within 30 days of completing the property sale. This includes submitting a ‘residential property return’ and paying on account.

Understanding Capital Gains Tax Allowances

The CGT allowances provide a tax-free threshold for individuals and couples. Understanding these allowances is crucial for minimising tax liabilities when selling a property. Keeping abreast of changes in CGT regulations ensures landlords capitalise on available appropriations and make informed decisions regarding property sales.

Letting Relief for Former Residences

Letting relief can be valuable for landlords who previously lived in their rental property. This relief allows landlords to reduce their CGT liability when selling a property that was once their primary residence. Understanding the criteria for letting relief ensures landlords leverage this benefit to optimise their financial outcomes.


Renting out property can be rewarding, but understanding taxation’s intricacies is paramount. From income tax considerations to the evolving landscape of landlord tax relief and the nuances of capital gains tax, staying informed is critical to financial success.

In conclusion, being aware of your tax obligations ensures you confidently navigate the rental property landscape. If you’re a landlord or considering entering the realm of property rental, seeking professional advice and staying updated on tax regulations will empower you to make informed decisions for a prosperous investment journey.

FAQs about Tax on Rental Property

What counts as rental income for landlords?

Rental income includes the rent received and other payments for services typically provided by a landlord, such as cleaning communal areas, utility bills, repairs, and non-refundable deposits. All these contribute to the overall taxable rental income.

How are expenses deducted from rental income?

Landlords can deduct eligible expenses incurred from letting the property. Examples include maintenance costs, insurance, and letting agent fees. A tax credit of 20% on mortgage interest payments can also be claimed.

What are the tax rates for rental income?

Tax authorities apply the same rates to rental profits as to other income, ranging from 0% to 45%, based on income brackets. Combining rental income with other earnings may impact the individual’s overall tax bracket.

When is a tax on rental income due?

Tax on rental profits is due for the tax year from April 6 to April 5 of the following year. Landlords must declare income for the tax year it’s due, even if payment is received after the tax year ends.

How is rental income vs. trading income distinguished?

Services beyond typical landlord duties, like cleaning rooms or providing regular meals, may be treated as trading income. Hoteliers or B&B owners fall into this category. Rent-a-room relief can be claimed even if trading, given the accommodation, is within the landlord’s home.

Do I need to complete a tax return for rental income?

If total UK property income exceeds £10,000 before expenses or rental income exceeds £2,500 after deducting expenses, landlords must complete the main tax return. Different sections apply for UK and overseas properties, and self-employed landlords must fill in the appropriate pages.

Can losses from rental properties be carried forward?

Landlords can carry forward losses from UK rental properties to offset future profits from other UK properties. If a landlord experiences a loss in one tax year, they can deduct it from profits in later years, thereby reducing their tax liability.

What are the tax implications when selling a rental property?

When selling a rental property, capital gains tax (CGT) is usually applicable. The rate is either 18% or 28%, depending on the taxpayer’s rate. Special rules apply if the property has been the landlord’s home. CGT’s reporting and payment deadline may vary, so landlords should know the specific timelines.


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